Refugee Lexicon

Updated: 27 April 2021

Since the drafting of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, important policy and guidance documents have been developed primarily in the English language. Similarly, throughout UNHCR’s engagement in Malaysia, the Office has utilized both English and Malay language mediums in order to effectively communicate with government, public, and refugee communities.

Recognising a gap of standardised refugee-related terms within the Malay language, UNHCR has developed the Refugee Lexicon: Translation of Related Terms into the Malay Language. UNHCR identified common terms in English and engaged with in-house technical experts who are native Malay language speakers to provide practical translations that can be used in the ordinary vernacular. Approximately 3,000 terms that are commonly used in discussions on the refugee context were compiled and translated.

UNHCR reviewed these translations and referred to translations used by the Malay language authority, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. The Refugee Lexicon is a living document which will be periodically reviewed and updated.

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E

Early marriage
Malay
Perkahwinan awal
Category of Word
Family
Early warning systems
Malay
Sistem amaran awal
Category of Word
Refugee protection
Earth sciences
Malay
sains bumi
Category of Word
Science
Earth sciences
Malay
sains bumi
Category of Word
Science
earthquakes
Malay
gempa bumi
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
East Africa
Malay
Afrika Timur
Category of Word
Geographical areas
East Africans
Malay
Orang Afrika Timur
Category of Word
Population groups
East Asia
Malay
Asia Timur
Category of Word
Geographical areas
East Asians
Malay
Orang Asia Timur
Category of Word
Population groups
East Germans
Malay
Orang Jerman Timur
Category of Word
Population groups
East Timorese
Malay
Orang Timor Timur
Category of Word
Population groups
East Timorese
Malay
Orang Timor-Leste
Category of Word
Population groups
Eastern Europe
Malay
Eropah Timur
Category of Word
Geographical areas
Eastern Europeans
Malay
Orang Eropah Timur
Category of Word
Population groups
ECHR
Malay
Konvensyen Hak Asasi Manusia Eropah
Category of Word
Human Rights
ecology
Malay
ekologi
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
Economic adaptation
Malay
Adaptasi ekonomi
Category of Word
Integration
Economic adaptation
Malay
Penyesuaian ekonomi
Category of Word
Integration
Economic change
Malay
perubahan ekonomi
Category of Word
Economics
Economic deprivation
Malay
kemerosotan ekonomi
Category of Word
Labour and employment
Economic development
Malay
Pembangunan ekonomi
Category of Word
Development
Economic expansion
Malay
pengembangan ekonomi
Category of Word
Economics
Economic integration
Malay
Integrasi ekonomi
Category of Word
Integration
Economic integration
Malay
Penyatuan ekonomi
Category of Word
Integration
Economic migration
Malay
Penghijrahan ekonomi
Category of Word
Migration
Economic migration
Malay
migrasi ekonomi
Category of Word
Migration
Economic processes
Malay
proses ekonomi
Category of Word
Economics
Economic recession
Malay
kemelesetan ekonomi
Category of Word
Economics
Economic resources
Malay
sumber ekonomi
Category of Word
Economics
Economic self-sufficiency
Malay
Mampu diri segi ekonomi
Category of Word
Integration
Economic self-sufficiency
Malay
Mampu diri ekonomi
Category of Word
Integration
Economic stagnation
Malay
ekonomi tidak berkembang
Category of Word
Economics
Economic systems
Malay
sistem ekonomi
Category of Word
Economics
Economic, social and cultural rights
Malay
Hak ekonomi, sosial dan kebudayaan
Category of Word
Human Rights
Economic, social and cultural rights
Malay
Hak ekonomi, sosial dan budaya
Category of Word
Human Rights
Economics
Malay
Ekonomi
Category of Word
Economics
ECOSOC
Malay
Majlis Ekonomi dan Sosial Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (ECOSOC)
Category of Word
Organization
ECOSOC resolutions
Malay
Resolusi ECOSOC
Category of Word
Entry, admission and reception
Ecuador
Malay
Ecuador
Category of Word
Geographical areas
Ecuadorians
Malay
Orang Ecuador
Category of Word
Population groups
Edo
Malay
Orang Edo
Category of Word
Population groups
Education
Malay
Pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Education administration
Malay
pentadbiran pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Education policy
Malay
dasar pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Education psychology
Malay
Psikologi pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational administration and management
Malay
Pentadbiran dan pengurusan pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational background
Malay
latar belakang pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational discrimination
Malay
Diskriminasi pendidikan
Category of Word
Human Rights
Educational finance
Malay
kewangan pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational grants
Malay
geran pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational guidance
Malay
bimbingan pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational institutions
Malay
Institusi pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational management
Malay
Pengurusan pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational opportunities
Malay
Peluang pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational programmes
Malay
Program pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational qualifications
Malay
kelayakan pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational systems and levels
Malay
Sistem dan tahap pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Educational systems and levels
Malay
Sistem dan tahap pendidikan
Category of Word
Education and language
Egypt
Malay
Mesir
Category of Word
Geographical areas
Egyptians
Malay
Orang Mesir
Category of Word
Population groups
El Salvador
Malay
El Salvador
Category of Word
Geographical areas
elderly
Malay
warga emas
Category of Word
Population groups
Elderly
Malay
Warga tua
Category of Word
Population groups
Elections
Malay
Pilihan raya
Category of Word
Politics
electricity
Malay
elektrik
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
Electronic documents
Malay
Fail elektronik
Category of Word
Communication and information
Electronic documents
Malay
Dokumen elektronik
Category of Word
Communication and information
Electronic mail
Malay
Emel
Category of Word
Communication and information
Elite
Malay
Elit
Category of Word
Social groups
Emergency feeding programmes
Malay
Program memberi makan kecemasan
Category of Word
Emergency relief
Emergency legislation
Malay
Perundangan darurat
Category of Word
National law
Emergency medical care
Malay
Rawatan perubatan kecemasan
Category of Word
Emergency relief
Emergency relief
Malay
Bantuan kecemasan
Category of Word
Emergency relief
Emergency relief operations
Malay
Operasi bantuan kecemasan
Category of Word
Emergency relief
Emergency relief organizations
Malay
Pertubuhan-pertubuhan bantuan kecemasan
Category of Word
Organization
Emergency relief programmes
Malay
Program bantuan kecemasan
Category of Word
Emergency relief
Emergency relief supplies
Malay
Bekalan bantuan kecemasan
Category of Word
Emergency relief
Emergency shelter
Malay
Tempat perlindungan kecemasan
Category of Word
Emergency relief
Emigrants
Malay
perantau
Category of Word
Population groups
Emigrants
Malay
emigran
Category of Word
Population groups
Emigrants
Malay
Penghijrah
Category of Word
Population groups
Emigration
Malay
Penghijrahan (keluar)
Category of Word
Migration
Emigration
Malay
emigrasi
Category of Word
Migration
Emigration policy
Malay
Dasar penghijrahan
Category of Word
Migration
Emigration policy
Malay
dasar emigrasi
Category of Word
Migration
emotions
Malay
perasaan
Category of Word
Psychology
emotions
Malay
emosi
Category of Word
Psychology
employees
Malay
pekerja
Category of Word
Labour and employment
employers
Malay
majikan
Category of Word
Labour and employment
employment
Malay
pekerjaan
Category of Word
Labour and employment
employment opportunities
Malay
peluang pekerjaan
Category of Word
Labour and employment
Employment services
Malay
Perkhidmatan pekerjaan
Category of Word
Social work and services
Encyclopaedias
Malay
Ensiklopedia
Category of Word
Communication and information
energy
Malay
tenaga
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
English minorities
Malay
Minoriti Inggeris
Category of Word
Population groups
Enterprises
Malay
perusahaan
Category of Word
Business and industry
Enterprises
Malay
syarikat
Category of Word
Business and industry
Entry
Malay
Kemasukan
Category of Word
Entry, admission and reception
Entry for settlement
Malay
Kemasukan untuk penempatan
Category of Word
Immigration law
environment
Malay
alam sekitar
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
environment
Malay
persekitaran
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
environment laws
Malay
undang-undang perlindungan alam sekitar
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
environmental degradation
Malay
penyahgredan alam sekitar
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
Environmental migrants
Malay
Pendatang asing alam sekitar
Category of Word
Population groups
Environmental migrants
Malay
emigran persekitaran
Category of Word
Population groups
environmental policy
Malay
dasar [perlindungan] alam sekitar
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
environmental protection
Malay
perlindungan alam sekitar
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
Environmental refugees
Malay
Pelarian alam sekitar
Category of Word
Refugees and other groups of concern
Epidemics
Malay
wabak
Category of Word
Diseases
epidemiology
Malay
Pengkajian wabak
Category of Word
Health, medicine and nutrition
epidemiology
Malay
epidemiologi
Category of Word
Health, medicine and nutrition
Equal opportunities
Malay
Peluang sama rata
Category of Word
Human Rights
Equality before the law
Malay
Kesaksamaan di bawah undang-undang
Category of Word
Human Rights
Equatorial Guinea
Malay
Guinea Khatulistiwa
Category of Word
Geographical areas
Equatorial Guineans
Malay
Orang Guinea Khatulistiwa
Category of Word
Population groups
Eritrea
Malay
Eritrea
Category of Word
Geographical areas
Eritrean minorities
Malay
Minoriti Eritrea
Category of Word
Population groups
Eritreans
Malay
Orang Eritrea
Category of Word
Population groups
Estonia
Malay
Estonia
Category of Word
Geographical areas
Estonian minorities
Malay
Minoriti Estonia
Category of Word
Population groups
Estonians
Malay
Orang Estonia
Category of Word
Population groups
Estoppel
Malay
Estopel
Category of Word
Administration of justice
Ethics
Malay
Etika
Category of Word
Belief Systems and religions
Ethiopia
Malay
Ethiopia
Category of Word
Geographical areas
Ethiopians
Malay
Orang Ethiopia
Category of Word
Population groups
Ethnic and national groups
Malay
kumpulan etnik dan kebangsaan
Category of Word
Population groups
Ethnic and national groups
Malay
Kumpulan etnik dan nasional
Category of Word
Population groups
Ethnic cleansing
Malay
Pembersihan etnik
Category of Word
Human Rights
Ethnic communities
Malay
Masyarakat etnik
Category of Word
Community
Ethnic communities
Malay
Komuniti etnik
Category of Word
Community
Ethnic conflict
Malay
Konflik etnik
Category of Word
Conflict
Ethnic discrimination
Malay
Diskriminasi etnik
Category of Word
Human Rights
Ethnic enclaves
Malay
Kepungan etnik/enklaf etnik
Category of Word
Human settlements
Ethnic identity
Malay
Identiti etnik
Category of Word
Social psychology
Ethnic neighbourhoods
Malay
Kawasan [kejiranan] etnik
Category of Word
Human settlements
Ethnic persecution
Malay
Penganiayaan etnik
Category of Word
Persecution
Ethnomedicine
Malay
ilmu perubatan tradisional
Category of Word
Medicine and medical treatment
Ethnomedicine
Malay
ethnoperubatan
Category of Word
Medicine and medical treatment
EU
Malay
Kesatuan Eropah (EU)
Category of Word
Organization
Europe
Malay
Eropah
Category of Word
Geographical areas
Europe
Malay
Eropah
Category of Word
Geographical areas
European Convention on Human Rights
Malay
Konvensyen Hak Asasi Manusia Eropah
Category of Word
Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
Malay
Mahkamah Hak Asasi Manusia Eropah
Category of Word
Organization
European Court of Justice
Malay
Mahkamah Keadilan Eropah
Category of Word
Organization
European groups
Malay
Kumpulan Eropah
Category of Word
Population groups
European Union (EU)
Malay
Kesatuan Eropah (EU)
Category of Word
Organization
Europeans
Malay
Orang Eropah
Category of Word
Population groups
Euthenasia
Malay
eutanasia
Category of Word
Diseases
Evacuation
Malay
Pemindahan
Category of Word
Refugee protection
Evacuation
Malay
perpindahan
Category of Word
Refugee protection
Evaluation
Malay
Penilaian
Category of Word
Management & Research
Evidence
Malay
Bukti
Category of Word
Administration of justice
Ewe
Malay
Orang Ewe
Category of Word
Population groups
Examination of immigrants
Malay
Pemeriksaan pendatang
Category of Word
Immigration law
Examinations
Malay
Peperiksaan
Category of Word
Education and language
Exceptional leave to remain
Malay
Kebenaran khas untuk tinggal
Category of Word
Immigration law
Exclusion
Malay
Pengecualian
Category of Word
Granting or denial of refugee status
Exclusion clauses
Malay
Klausa pengecualian
Category of Word
Granting or denial of refugee status
Executive branch
Malay
Cawangan eksekutif
Category of Word
Politics
Executive orders
Malay
Arahan eksekutif
Category of Word
Legal instruments
Executive power
Malay
Kuasa eksekutif
Category of Word
Politics
Exhibitions
Malay
Pameran
Category of Word
Communication and information
Exile
Malay
Buangan
Category of Word
Migration
Exiles
Malay
Pengusiran
Category of Word
Population groups
exiles
Malay
orangan buangan
Category of Word
Population groups
Exodus
Malay
Penghijarahan
Category of Word
Refugee protection
Exodus
Malay
Pemergian
Category of Word
Refugee protection
expectation
Malay
jangkaan
Category of Word
Psychology
expectation
Malay
pengharapan
Category of Word
Psychology
expectation
Malay
hal yang diharapkan
Category of Word
Psychology
Expenditure
Malay
perbelanjawan
Category of Word
Labour and employment
Expert evidence
Malay
Bukti pakar
Category of Word
Administration of justice
exploitation of natural resources
Malay
eksploitasi sumber semula jadi
Category of Word
Natural resources and environment
Expulsion
Malay
Pengusiran
Category of Word
Immigration law
Expulsion orders
Malay
Perintah pengusiran
Category of Word
Immigration law
Extended family
Malay
Keluarga besar/keluarga luas/keluarga lanjutan
Category of Word
Family
Extradition
Malay
Ekstradisi
Category of Word
Immigration law
Extralegal executions
Malay
Pembunuhan di luar undang undang
Category of Word
Human Rights
Extralegal executions
Malay
Pembunuhan luar bidang perundangan
Category of Word
Human Rights
Extraterritorial effect
Malay
Kesan antarabangsa
Category of Word
Entry, admission and reception
Extraterritorial effect
Malay
Kesan ekstrateritorial
Category of Word
Entry, admission and reception
Extraterritorial processing
Malay
Pemprosesan luar negara
Category of Word
Entry, admission and reception